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Completing Barebones I

The minimum files and structure needed to start a new web design project.

Adding A Bit of Content

We now complete the barebones set up with adding content to the text files.

robots.txt - link

A robots.txt file is not an essential element for your web site but can be useful for asking visiting web robots to not crawl or index parts of your site.

A robots.txt file is a text file that stops web crawler software, such as Googlebot, from crawling certain pages of your site.


This is useful if you have files or folders you would rather not appear in search engine listings. It is included here with no restrictions for robots visiting our site.

Note: You need a robots.txt file only if your site includes content that you don't want Google or other search engines to index. To let Google index your entire site, don't make a robots.txt file (not even an empty one).


User-agent: *

humans.txt - link

As with the robots.txt file, a humans.txt file is not essential to your web site. What it does do is allow an acknoledgement to be made to all the people who have contributed as authors to the site:

... because it's something simple and fast to create. Because it's not intrusive with the code. More often than not, the owners of the site don't like the authors signing it; they claim that doing so may make the site less efficient. By adding a txt file, you can prove your authorship (not your property) in an external, fast, easy and accessible way.

Visit the humans.txt website above to read more about this initiative.

# The humans responsible & technology colophon

    - Your details here
    HTML5, CSS3

Completing Barebones II

Common files we will use in every website

Finally, we add two further files that will be used in the framework and so should be present in our barebones set up.

normalize.css - download

We take our first real design decision here to choose what to do about the growing range of browsers and devices accessiong the internet.

All browsers (user agents) have a set of defaults on how they will display sites to the user through a built in style sheet. Some browsers even contain bugs and errors... To overcome this, a system of resetting the built-in styles developed to ensure a consistency for designers and users.

However, a complete css reset means having to then redeclare the full styles for each html element you want to use. So, a system of normalising elements arose:

Normalize.css makes browsers render all elements more consistently and in line with modern standards. It precisely targets only the styles that need normalising.

Read more about the advantages of normalize.css »

html5shiv.min.js - download

Sticking a knife into old browsers, particularly Internet Explorer.

The HTML5 Shiv enables use of HTML5 sectioning elements in legacy Internet Explorer and provides basic HTML5 styling for Internet Explorer 6-9, Safari 4.x (and iPhone 3.x), and Firefox 3.x.

A "black box" solution to problems with old browsers and modern html. Just drop it into the framework and use without alteration.

As the internet changes so rapidly, check that the latest version is included for each new project using the framework.

Download Barebones

Starter files for the framework

File Structure

Download Barebones v0.1


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